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Comment:Merged recent spell check fixes into this branch so we don't revert any of them.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | server-docs
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA3-256: a9fd086f132705b43482089d6f52fe2848f00060405bd14223b1001cef12df58
User & Date: wyoung 2019-08-16 01:58:44
Context
2019-08-16
07:13
Broke most of the contents of www/server/wiki out into a series of www/server/*.md articles that are now linked from a checkmark table in its place, which also links to the new www/server/windows/*.md files created to start this branch off. This is not purely a matter of moving prose around: there is a fair bit of improvement to the pre-existing prose as well, most notably that we now document the Fossil chroot jail requirements for the first time. (Previously, you had to go dig up mailing list or forum posts (or even RTFS!) to work out those requirements.) There's more to do on all of this; do not merge it to trunk yet. check-in: fad82714 user: wyoung tags: server-docs
01:58
Merged recent spell check fixes into this branch so we don't revert any of them. check-in: a9fd086f user: wyoung tags: server-docs
01:57
Another spell check pass on www/* using a different dictionary than in the prior pass. ([79c2cb083152]) check-in: 0996347d user: wyoung tags: trunk
2019-08-15
16:16
Server Documentation Update. This ckeckin contains instructions for using Fossil as a windows service and with stunnel as an https proxy. check-in: 8b7c563d user: ckennedy tags: server-docs
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

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how <div class='fossil-doc'> this works.

With each new release, the "releases" variable in the javascript on
the [/uv/download.js?mimetype=text/plain|download.js] page is
edited (using "[/help?cmd=uv|fossil uv edit download.js]") to add
details of the release.

When the javascript in the "download.js" file runs, it requests
a listing of all unversioned content using the /juvlist URL.
([/juvlist|sample /juvlist output]).  The content of the download page is
constructed by matching unversioned files against regular expressions
in the "releases" variable.

Build products need to be constructed on different machines.  The precompiled
binary for Linux is compiled on Linux, the precompiled binary for Windows







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how <div class='fossil-doc'> this works.

With each new release, the "releases" variable in the javascript on
the [/uv/download.js?mimetype=text/plain|download.js] page is
edited (using "[/help?cmd=uv|fossil uv edit download.js]") to add
details of the release.

When the JavaScript in the "download.js" file runs, it requests
a listing of all unversioned content using the /juvlist URL.
([/juvlist|sample /juvlist output]).  The content of the download page is
constructed by matching unversioned files against regular expressions
in the "releases" variable.

Build products need to be constructed on different machines.  The precompiled
binary for Linux is compiled on Linux, the precompiled binary for Windows

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## Setup Prerequisites

Much of this document describes how to set up Fossil's email alert
system. To follow this guide, you will need a Fossil UI browser window
open to the [Admin → Notification](/setup_notification) Fossil UI screen
on the the Fossil server that will be sending these email alerts, logged
in as a user with Admin capability. It is not possible to work on a
clone of the server's repository and push the configuration changes up
to that repo as an Admin user, [on purpose](#backup).

**Important:** Do not confuse that screen with Admin → Email-Server,
which sets up a different subsystem within Fossil. That feature is
related to this document's topic, but it is currently incomplete, so we







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## Setup Prerequisites

Much of this document describes how to set up Fossil's email alert
system. To follow this guide, you will need a Fossil UI browser window
open to the [Admin → Notification](/setup_notification) Fossil UI screen
on the Fossil server that will be sending these email alerts, logged
in as a user with Admin capability. It is not possible to work on a
clone of the server's repository and push the configuration changes up
to that repo as an Admin user, [on purpose](#backup).

**Important:** Do not confuse that screen with Admin → Email-Server,
which sets up a different subsystem within Fossil. That feature is
related to this document's topic, but it is currently incomplete, so we

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<li> Wget/1.12 (openbsd4.9)
</ul>

The first two UserAgent strings above identify Firefox 19 and
Internet Explorer 8.0, both running on Windows NT.  The third
example is the spider used by Google to index the internet.
The fourth example is the "wget" utility running on OpenBSD.
Thus the first two UserAgent strings above identify the requestor
as human whereas the second two identify the requestor as a spider.
Note that the UserAgent string is completely under the control
of the requestor and so a malicious spider can forge a UserAgent
string that makes it look like a human.  But most spiders truly
seem to desire to "play nicely" on the internet and are quite open
about the fact that they are a spider.  And so the UserAgent string
provides a good first-guess about whether or not a request originates
from a human or a spider.

In Fossil, under the Admin/Access menu, there is a setting entitled
................................................................................
human and not a spider, then Fossil will enable hyperlinks even if
the "h" capability is omitted from the user permissions.  This setting
gives humans easy access to the hyperlinks while preventing spiders
from walking the millions of pages on a typical Fossil site.

But the hyperlinks are not enabled directly with the setting above.
Instead, the HTML code that is generated contains anchor tags ("&lt;a&gt;")
without "href=" attributes.  Then, javascript code is added to the
end of the page that goes back and fills in the "href=" attributes of
the anchor tags with the hyperlink targets, thus enabling the hyperlinks.
This extra step of using javascript to enable the hyperlink targets
is a security measure against spiders that forge a human-looking
UserAgent string.  Most spiders do not bother to run javascript and
so to the spider the empty anchor tag will be useless.  But all modern
web browsers implement javascript, so hyperlinks will show up
normally for human users.

<h2>Further defenses</h2>

Recently (as of this writing, in the spring of 2013) the Fossil server
on the SQLite website ([http://www.sqlite.org/src/]) has been hit repeatedly
by Chinese spiders that use forged UserAgent strings to make them look
like normal web browsers and which interpret javascript.  We do not
believe these attacks to be nefarious since SQLite is public domain
and the attackers could obtain all information they ever wanted to
know about SQLite simply by cloning the repository.  Instead, we
believe these "attacks" are coming from "script kiddies".  But regardless
of whether or not malice is involved, these attacks do present
an unnecessary load on the server which reduces the responsiveness of
the SQLite website for well-behaved and socially responsible users.
For this reason, additional defenses against
spiders have been put in place.

On the Admin/Access page of Fossil, just below the
"<b>Enable hyperlinks for "nobody" based on User-Agent and Javascript</b>"
setting, there are now two additional subsettings that can be optionally
enabled to control hyperlinks.

The first subsetting waits to run the
javascript that sets the "href=" attributes on anchor tags until after
at least one "mouseover" event has been detected on the &lt;body&gt;
element of the page.  The thinking here is that spiders will not be
simulating mouse motion and so no mouseover events will ever occur and
hence the hyperlinks will never become enabled for spiders.

The second new subsetting is a delay (in milliseconds) before setting
the "href=" attributes on anchor tags.  The default value for this
delay is 10 milliseconds.  The idea here is that a spider will try to
render the page immediately, and will not wait for delayed scripts
to be run, thus will never enable the hyperlinks.

These two subsettings can be used separately or together.  If used together,
then the delay timer does not start until after the first mouse movement
is detected.

See also [./server.wiki#loadmgmt|Managing Server Load] for a description
of how expensive pages can be disabled when the server is under heavy
load.








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<li> Wget/1.12 (openbsd4.9)
</ul>

The first two UserAgent strings above identify Firefox 19 and
Internet Explorer 8.0, both running on Windows NT.  The third
example is the spider used by Google to index the internet.
The fourth example is the "wget" utility running on OpenBSD.
Thus the first two UserAgent strings above identify the requester
as human whereas the second two identify the requester as a spider.
Note that the UserAgent string is completely under the control
of the requester and so a malicious spider can forge a UserAgent
string that makes it look like a human.  But most spiders truly
seem to desire to "play nicely" on the internet and are quite open
about the fact that they are a spider.  And so the UserAgent string
provides a good first-guess about whether or not a request originates
from a human or a spider.

In Fossil, under the Admin/Access menu, there is a setting entitled
................................................................................
human and not a spider, then Fossil will enable hyperlinks even if
the "h" capability is omitted from the user permissions.  This setting
gives humans easy access to the hyperlinks while preventing spiders
from walking the millions of pages on a typical Fossil site.

But the hyperlinks are not enabled directly with the setting above.
Instead, the HTML code that is generated contains anchor tags ("&lt;a&gt;")
without "href=" attributes.  Then, JavaScript code is added to the
end of the page that goes back and fills in the "href=" attributes of
the anchor tags with the hyperlink targets, thus enabling the hyperlinks.
This extra step of using JavaScript to enable the hyperlink targets
is a security measure against spiders that forge a human-looking
UserAgent string.  Most spiders do not bother to run JavaScript and
so to the spider the empty anchor tag will be useless.  But all modern
web browsers implement JavaScript, so hyperlinks will show up
normally for human users.

<h2>Further defenses</h2>

Recently (as of this writing, in the spring of 2013) the Fossil server
on the SQLite website ([http://www.sqlite.org/src/]) has been hit repeatedly
by Chinese spiders that use forged UserAgent strings to make them look
like normal web browsers and which interpret JavaScript.  We do not
believe these attacks to be nefarious since SQLite is public domain
and the attackers could obtain all information they ever wanted to
know about SQLite simply by cloning the repository.  Instead, we
believe these "attacks" are coming from "script kiddies".  But regardless
of whether or not malice is involved, these attacks do present
an unnecessary load on the server which reduces the responsiveness of
the SQLite website for well-behaved and socially responsible users.
For this reason, additional defenses against
spiders have been put in place.

On the Admin/Access page of Fossil, just below the
"<b>Enable hyperlinks for "nobody" based on User-Agent and Javascript</b>"
setting, there are now two additional sub-settings that can be optionally
enabled to control hyperlinks.

The first sub-setting waits to run the
JavaScript that sets the "href=" attributes on anchor tags until after
at least one "mouseover" event has been detected on the &lt;body&gt;
element of the page.  The thinking here is that spiders will not be
simulating mouse motion and so no mouseover events will ever occur and
hence the hyperlinks will never become enabled for spiders.

The second new sub-setting is a delay (in milliseconds) before setting
the "href=" attributes on anchor tags.  The default value for this
delay is 10 milliseconds.  The idea here is that a spider will try to
render the page immediately, and will not wait for delayed scripts
to be run, thus will never enable the hyperlinks.

These two sub-settings can be used separately or together.  If used together,
then the delay timer does not start until after the first mouse movement
is detected.

See also [./server.wiki#loadmgmt|Managing Server Load] for a description
of how expensive pages can be disabled when the server is under heavy
load.

Changes to www/branching.wiki.

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<ol>
    <li><p id="offline">By Fossil itself when two users check in children to the same
    leaf of a branch, as in Figure 2.  If the fork occurs because
    autosync is disabled on one or both of the repositories or because
    the user doing the check-in has no network connection at the moment
    of the commit, Fossil has no way of knowing that it is creating a
    fork until the two repositories are later sync'd.</p></li>

    <li><p id="dist-clone">By Fossil when the cloning hierarchy is more
    than 2 levels deep.
    <br><br>
    [./sync.wiki|Fossil's synchronization protocol] is a two-party
    negotiation; syncs don't automatically propagate up the clone tree
    beyond that. Because of that, if you have a master repository and
................................................................................
mainline of that branch due to some human error. (See <b>fossil
amend</b> and the Fossil UI checkin amendment features.) This is a
workaround for Fossil's [./shunning.wiki|normal inability to forget
history]: we usually don't want to actually <i>remove</i> history, but
would like to sometimes set some of it aside under a new label.

Because some VCSes can't cope with duplicate branch names, Fossil
collapses such names down on export using the same timestamp based
arbitration logic, so that only the branch with the newest checkin gets
the branch name in the export.

All of the above is true of tags in general, not just branches.







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<ol>
    <li><p id="offline">By Fossil itself when two users check in children to the same
    leaf of a branch, as in Figure 2.  If the fork occurs because
    autosync is disabled on one or both of the repositories or because
    the user doing the check-in has no network connection at the moment
    of the commit, Fossil has no way of knowing that it is creating a
    fork until the two repositories are later synchronized.</p></li>

    <li><p id="dist-clone">By Fossil when the cloning hierarchy is more
    than 2 levels deep.
    <br><br>
    [./sync.wiki|Fossil's synchronization protocol] is a two-party
    negotiation; syncs don't automatically propagate up the clone tree
    beyond that. Because of that, if you have a master repository and
................................................................................
mainline of that branch due to some human error. (See <b>fossil
amend</b> and the Fossil UI checkin amendment features.) This is a
workaround for Fossil's [./shunning.wiki|normal inability to forget
history]: we usually don't want to actually <i>remove</i> history, but
would like to sometimes set some of it aside under a new label.

Because some VCSes can't cope with duplicate branch names, Fossil
collapses such names down on export using the same time stamp based
arbitration logic, so that only the branch with the newest checkin gets
the branch name in the export.

All of the above is true of tags in general, not just branches.

Changes to www/concepts.wiki.

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by downloading a
<a href="https://www.fossil-scm.org/fossil/uv/download.html">pre-compiled version</a>
or [./build.wiki | compiling it yourself]) and then
putting that file somewhere on your PATH.

Fossil is completely self-contained.  It is not necessary to
install any other software in order to use Fossil.  You do <u>not</u> need
CVS, gzip, diff, rsync, Python, Perl, Tcl, Java, apache, PostgreSQL, MySQL,
SQLite, patch, or any similar software on your system in order to use
Fossil effectively.  You will want to have some kind of text editor
for entering check-in comments.  Fossil will use whatever text editor
is identified by your VISUAL environment variable.  Fossil will also
use GPG to clearsign your manifests if you happen to have it installed,
but Fossil will skip that step if GPG missing from your system.
You can optionally set up Fossil to use external "diff" programs,







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by downloading a
<a href="https://www.fossil-scm.org/fossil/uv/download.html">pre-compiled version</a>
or [./build.wiki | compiling it yourself]) and then
putting that file somewhere on your PATH.

Fossil is completely self-contained.  It is not necessary to
install any other software in order to use Fossil.  You do <u>not</u> need
CVS, gzip, diff, rsync, Python, Perl, Tcl, Java, Apache, PostgreSQL, MySQL,
SQLite, patch, or any similar software on your system in order to use
Fossil effectively.  You will want to have some kind of text editor
for entering check-in comments.  Fossil will use whatever text editor
is identified by your VISUAL environment variable.  Fossil will also
use GPG to clearsign your manifests if you happen to have it installed,
but Fossil will skip that step if GPG missing from your system.
You can optionally set up Fossil to use external "diff" programs,

Changes to www/contribute.wiki.

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Fossil Architect (Richard Hipp) will merge changes onto the trunk.</p>

Contributors are required to following the
[./checkin.wiki | pre-checkin checklist] prior to every check-in to
the Fossil self-hosting repository.  This checklist is short and succinct
and should only require a few seconds to follow.  Contributors
should print out a copy of the pre-checkin checklist and keep
it on a notecard beside their workstations, for quick reference.

Contributors should review the
[./style.wiki | Coding Style Guidelines] and mimic the coding style
used through the rest of the Fossil source code.  Your code should
blend in.  A third-party reader should be unable to distinguish your
code from any other code in the source corpus.








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Fossil Architect (Richard Hipp) will merge changes onto the trunk.</p>

Contributors are required to following the
[./checkin.wiki | pre-checkin checklist] prior to every check-in to
the Fossil self-hosting repository.  This checklist is short and succinct
and should only require a few seconds to follow.  Contributors
should print out a copy of the pre-checkin checklist and keep
it on a note card beside their workstations, for quick reference.

Contributors should review the
[./style.wiki | Coding Style Guidelines] and mimic the coding style
used through the rest of the Fossil source code.  Your code should
blend in.  A third-party reader should be unable to distinguish your
code from any other code in the source corpus.

Changes to www/event.wiki.

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  *  <b>Process Checkpoints</b>.  For projects that have a formal process,
     technotes can be used to record the completion or the initiation of
     various process steps.  For example, a technote can be used to record
     the successful completion of a long-running test, perhaps with
     performance results and details of where the test was run and who
     ran it recorded in the wiki content.

  *  <b>News Articles</b>.  Significant occurrences in the lifecycle of
     a project can be recorded as news articles using technotes.  Perhaps the
     domain name of the canonical website for a project changes, or new
     server hardware is obtained.  Such happenings are appropriate for
     reporting as news.

  *  <b>Announcements</b>.  Changes to the composition of the development
     team or acquisition of new project sponsors can be communicated as







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  *  <b>Process Checkpoints</b>.  For projects that have a formal process,
     technotes can be used to record the completion or the initiation of
     various process steps.  For example, a technote can be used to record
     the successful completion of a long-running test, perhaps with
     performance results and details of where the test was run and who
     ran it recorded in the wiki content.

  *  <b>News Articles</b>.  Significant occurrences in the life cycle of
     a project can be recorded as news articles using technotes.  Perhaps the
     domain name of the canonical website for a project changes, or new
     server hardware is obtained.  Such happenings are appropriate for
     reporting as news.

  *  <b>Announcements</b>.  Changes to the composition of the development
     team or acquisition of new project sponsors can be communicated as

Changes to www/forum.wiki.

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     or back to the office before you can search for past posts.

  *  <b>Contribute Off-Line:</b> Fossil forum posts work like any other
     insertion into the repository, so a user can create new threads and
     reply to existing ones while off-line, then sync their
     contributions to the server they cloned from when back on-line.
     Yes, you can post to the forum from inside a tent, miles from the
     nearest wifi router or cellular data tower.

  *  <b>Interlink with Other Fossil-Managed Artifacts:</b> Because forum
     posts are normal Fossil artifacts, you can interlink them with
     other Fossil artifacts using short internal links: link to forum
     threads from a [./tickets.wiki | ticket], link to a wiki document
     from a forum post, etc.








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     or back to the office before you can search for past posts.

  *  <b>Contribute Off-Line:</b> Fossil forum posts work like any other
     insertion into the repository, so a user can create new threads and
     reply to existing ones while off-line, then sync their
     contributions to the server they cloned from when back on-line.
     Yes, you can post to the forum from inside a tent, miles from the
     nearest WiFi router or cellular data tower.

  *  <b>Interlink with Other Fossil-Managed Artifacts:</b> Because forum
     posts are normal Fossil artifacts, you can interlink them with
     other Fossil artifacts using short internal links: link to forum
     threads from a [./tickets.wiki | ticket], link to a wiki document
     from a forum post, etc.

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many ways. Both are
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_version_control | distributed
version control systems] which store a tree of check-in objects to a
local repository clone. In both systems, the local clone starts out as a
full copy of the remote parent. New content gets added to the local
clone and then later optionally pushed up to the remote, and changes to
the remote can be pulled down to the local clone at will. Both systems
offer diffing, patching, branching, merging, cherrypicking, bisecting,
private branches, a stash, etc.

Fossil has inbound and outbound Git conversion features, so if you start
out using one DVCS and later decide you like the other better, you can
easily [./inout.wiki | move your version-controlled file content].¹

In this document, we set all of that similarity and interoperability
................................................................................
SQLite itself aside is SQL code calling into SQLite. The number of lines
of SQL code in Fossil isn't large by percentage, but since SQL is such
an expressive, declarative language, it has an outsized contribution to
Fossil's user-visible functionality.

Fossil isn't entirely C and SQL code. Its web UI uses JavaScript where
necessary.⁵ The server-side
UI scripting usse a custom minimal
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tcl|Tcl] dialect called
[https://www.fossil-scm.org/xfer/doc/trunk/www/th1.md|TH1], which is
embedeed into Fossil itself. Fossil's build system and test suite are
largely based on Tcl.⁶ All of this is quite portable.

About half of Git's code is POSIX C, and about a third is POSIX shell
code. This is largely why the so-called "Git for Windows" distributions
(both [https://git-scm.com/download/win|first-party] and
[https://gitforwindows.org/|third-party]) are actually an
[http://mingw.org/wiki/msys|MSYS POSIX portability environment] bundled
................................................................................
design and low-friction usage path in the tools created to support each
project.

Git promotes the Linux kernel's bazaar development style, in which a
loosely-associated mass of developers contribute their work through
[https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Distributed-Git-Distributed-Workflows#_dictator_and_lieutenants_workflow|a
hierarchy of lieutenants] who manage and clean up these contributions
for consideration by Linus Torvalds, who has the power to cherrypick
individual contributions into his version of the Linux kernel. Git
allows an anonymous developer to rebase and push specific locally-named
private branches, so that a Git repo clone often isn't really a clone at
all: it may have an arbitrary number of differences relative to the
repository it originally cloned from. Git encourages siloed development.
Select work in a developer's local repository may remain private
indefinitely.
................................................................................

<ul>
    <li><p><b>Personal engagement:</b> SQLite's developers know each
    other by name and work together daily on the project.</p></li>

    <li><p><b>Trust over hierarchy:</b> SQLite's developers check
    changes into their local repository, and these are immediately and
    automatically sync'd up to the central repository; there is no
    "[https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Distributed-Git-Distributed-Workflows#_dictator_and_lieutenants_workflow|dictator
    and lieutenants]" hierarchy as with Linux kernel contributions.  D.
    Richard Hipp rarely overrides decisions made by those he has trusted
    with commit access on his repositories. Fossil allows you to give
    [/doc/trunk/www/admin-v-setup.md|some users] more power over what
    they can do with the repository, but Fossil does not otherwise
    directly support the enforcement of a development organization's
................................................................................


<h3 id="checkouts">2.6 One vs. Many Check-outs per Repository</h3>

A "repository" in Git is a pile-of-files in the <tt>.git</tt>
subdirectory of a single check-out. The working check-out directory and
the <tt>.git</tt> repository subdirectory are normally in the same
directory within the filesystem.

With Fossil, a "repository" is a single SQLite database file that can be
stored anywhere.  There can be multiple active check-outs from the same
repository, perhaps open on different branches or on different snapshots
of the same branch.  It is common in Fossil to switch branches with a
"<tt>cd</tt>" command between two check-out directories rather than
switching to another branch in place within a single working directory.
................................................................................

    <li><p>The <tt>fossil-scm.org</tt> web site is actually hosted in
    several parts, so that it is not strictly true that "everything" on
    it is in the self-hosting Fossil project repo. The web forum is
    hosted as [https://fossil-scm.org/forum/|a separate Fossil repo]
    from the [https://fossil-scm.org/fossil/|main Fossil self-hosting
    repo] for administration reasons, and the Download page content
    isn't normally sync'd with a "<tt>fossil clone</tt>" command unless
    you add the "-u" option.  (See "[./aboutdownload.wiki|How the
    Download Page Works]" for details.) There may also be some purely
    static elements of the web site served via D. Richard Hipp's own
    lightweight web server,
    <tt>[https://sqlite.org/docsrc/doc/trunk/misc/althttpd.md|althttpd]</tt>,
    which is configured as a front end to Fossil running in CGI mode on
    these sites.
................................................................................
    $40/month.

    <li><p>This means you can give up waiting for Fossil to be ported to
    the PDP-11, but we remain hopeful that someone may eventually port
    it to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z/OS|z/OS].

    <li><p>We try to keep use of Javascript to a minimum in the web UI,
    and we always try to provide sensible fallbacks for those that run
    their browsers with Javascript disabled. Some features of the web UI
    simply won't run without Javascript, but the UI behavior does
    degrade gracefully.

    <li><p>"Why is there all this Tcl in and around Fossil?" you may
    ask. It is because D. Richard Hipp is a long-time Tcl user and
    contributor. SQLite started out as an embedded database for Tcl







|







 







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many ways. Both are
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_version_control | distributed
version control systems] which store a tree of check-in objects to a
local repository clone. In both systems, the local clone starts out as a
full copy of the remote parent. New content gets added to the local
clone and then later optionally pushed up to the remote, and changes to
the remote can be pulled down to the local clone at will. Both systems
offer diffing, patching, branching, merging, cherry-picking, bisecting,
private branches, a stash, etc.

Fossil has inbound and outbound Git conversion features, so if you start
out using one DVCS and later decide you like the other better, you can
easily [./inout.wiki | move your version-controlled file content].¹

In this document, we set all of that similarity and interoperability
................................................................................
SQLite itself aside is SQL code calling into SQLite. The number of lines
of SQL code in Fossil isn't large by percentage, but since SQL is such
an expressive, declarative language, it has an outsized contribution to
Fossil's user-visible functionality.

Fossil isn't entirely C and SQL code. Its web UI uses JavaScript where
necessary.⁵ The server-side
UI scripting uses a custom minimal
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tcl|Tcl] dialect called
[https://www.fossil-scm.org/xfer/doc/trunk/www/th1.md|TH1], which is
embedded into Fossil itself. Fossil's build system and test suite are
largely based on Tcl.⁶ All of this is quite portable.

About half of Git's code is POSIX C, and about a third is POSIX shell
code. This is largely why the so-called "Git for Windows" distributions
(both [https://git-scm.com/download/win|first-party] and
[https://gitforwindows.org/|third-party]) are actually an
[http://mingw.org/wiki/msys|MSYS POSIX portability environment] bundled
................................................................................
design and low-friction usage path in the tools created to support each
project.

Git promotes the Linux kernel's bazaar development style, in which a
loosely-associated mass of developers contribute their work through
[https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Distributed-Git-Distributed-Workflows#_dictator_and_lieutenants_workflow|a
hierarchy of lieutenants] who manage and clean up these contributions
for consideration by Linus Torvalds, who has the power to cherry-pick
individual contributions into his version of the Linux kernel. Git
allows an anonymous developer to rebase and push specific locally-named
private branches, so that a Git repo clone often isn't really a clone at
all: it may have an arbitrary number of differences relative to the
repository it originally cloned from. Git encourages siloed development.
Select work in a developer's local repository may remain private
indefinitely.
................................................................................

<ul>
    <li><p><b>Personal engagement:</b> SQLite's developers know each
    other by name and work together daily on the project.</p></li>

    <li><p><b>Trust over hierarchy:</b> SQLite's developers check
    changes into their local repository, and these are immediately and
    automatically synchronized up to the central repository; there is no
    "[https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Distributed-Git-Distributed-Workflows#_dictator_and_lieutenants_workflow|dictator
    and lieutenants]" hierarchy as with Linux kernel contributions.  D.
    Richard Hipp rarely overrides decisions made by those he has trusted
    with commit access on his repositories. Fossil allows you to give
    [/doc/trunk/www/admin-v-setup.md|some users] more power over what
    they can do with the repository, but Fossil does not otherwise
    directly support the enforcement of a development organization's
................................................................................


<h3 id="checkouts">2.6 One vs. Many Check-outs per Repository</h3>

A "repository" in Git is a pile-of-files in the <tt>.git</tt>
subdirectory of a single check-out. The working check-out directory and
the <tt>.git</tt> repository subdirectory are normally in the same
directory within the file system.

With Fossil, a "repository" is a single SQLite database file that can be
stored anywhere.  There can be multiple active check-outs from the same
repository, perhaps open on different branches or on different snapshots
of the same branch.  It is common in Fossil to switch branches with a
"<tt>cd</tt>" command between two check-out directories rather than
switching to another branch in place within a single working directory.
................................................................................

    <li><p>The <tt>fossil-scm.org</tt> web site is actually hosted in
    several parts, so that it is not strictly true that "everything" on
    it is in the self-hosting Fossil project repo. The web forum is
    hosted as [https://fossil-scm.org/forum/|a separate Fossil repo]
    from the [https://fossil-scm.org/fossil/|main Fossil self-hosting
    repo] for administration reasons, and the Download page content
    isn't normally synchronized with a "<tt>fossil clone</tt>" command unless
    you add the "-u" option.  (See "[./aboutdownload.wiki|How the
    Download Page Works]" for details.) There may also be some purely
    static elements of the web site served via D. Richard Hipp's own
    lightweight web server,
    <tt>[https://sqlite.org/docsrc/doc/trunk/misc/althttpd.md|althttpd]</tt>,
    which is configured as a front end to Fossil running in CGI mode on
    these sites.
................................................................................
    $40/month.

    <li><p>This means you can give up waiting for Fossil to be ported to
    the PDP-11, but we remain hopeful that someone may eventually port
    it to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z/OS|z/OS].

    <li><p>We try to keep use of Javascript to a minimum in the web UI,
    and we always try to provide sensible fall-backs for those that run
    their browsers with Javascript disabled. Some features of the web UI
    simply won't run without Javascript, but the UI behavior does
    degrade gracefully.

    <li><p>"Why is there all this Tcl in and around Fossil?" you may
    ask. It is because D. Richard Hipp is a long-time Tcl user and
    contributor. SQLite started out as an embedded database for Tcl

Changes to www/fossil_prompt.wiki.

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<title>Fossilized Bash Prompt</title>
<h1>2013-02-21</h1>

Dan Kennedy has contributed a
[./fossil_prompt.sh?mimetype=text/plain | bash script]
that manipulates the bash prompt to show the status of
the Fossil repository that the user is currently visiting.
The prompt shows the branch, version, and timestamp for the
current checkout, and the prompt changes colors from blue to
red when there are uncommitted changes.

To try out this script, simply download it from the link above, then
type:

<blockquote><pre>







|







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<title>Fossilized Bash Prompt</title>
<h1>2013-02-21</h1>

Dan Kennedy has contributed a
[./fossil_prompt.sh?mimetype=text/plain | bash script]
that manipulates the bash prompt to show the status of
the Fossil repository that the user is currently visiting.
The prompt shows the branch, version, and time stamp for the
current checkout, and the prompt changes colors from blue to
red when there are uncommitted changes.

To try out this script, simply download it from the link above, then
type:

<blockquote><pre>

Changes to www/password.wiki.

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Note that in order to log into a Fossil server, it is necessary to
write information into the repository database.  Hence, login is not
possible on a Fossil repository with a read-only database file.

The user password is sent over the wire as cleartext on the initial
login attempt.  The plan moving forward is to compute the SHA1 hash of
the password on the client using javascript and then send only the hash
over the wire, but that plan has not yet been set in code.

<h2>Sync Protocol Authentication</h2>

A different authentication mechanism is used when one repository wants
to sync (or push or pull or clone) another repository.  When two
repositories are syncing, the one that initiates the transaction is







|







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Note that in order to log into a Fossil server, it is necessary to
write information into the repository database.  Hence, login is not
possible on a Fossil repository with a read-only database file.

The user password is sent over the wire as cleartext on the initial
login attempt.  The plan moving forward is to compute the SHA1 hash of
the password on the client using JavaScript and then send only the hash
over the wire, but that plan has not yet been set in code.

<h2>Sync Protocol Authentication</h2>

A different authentication mechanism is used when one repository wants
to sync (or push or pull or clone) another repository.  When two
repositories are syncing, the one that initiates the transaction is

Changes to www/quickstart.wiki.

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    changes if told to do so.</p>

<h2>Configuring Your Local Repository</h2>

    <p>When you create a new repository, either by cloning an existing
    project or create a new project of your own, you usually want to do some
    local configuration.  This is easily accomplished using the web-server
    that is built into fossil.  Start the fossil webserver like this:
    ([/help/ui | more info])</p>

    <blockquote>
    <b>fossil ui </b><i> repository-filename</i>
    </blockquote>

    <p>You can omit the <i>repository-filename</i> from the command above
................................................................................
    <i># make sure the merge didn't break anything...</i><br>
    <b>fossil [/help/commit|commit]
    </blockquote>

    <p>The argument to the [/help/merge|merge] command can be any of the
    version identifier forms that work for [/help/update|update].
    ([./checkin_names.wiki|more info].)
    The merge command has options to cherrypick individual
    changes, or to back out individual changes, if you don't want to
    do a full merge.</p>

    The merge command puts all changes in your working check-out.
    No changes are made to the repository.
    You must run [/help/commit|commit] separately
    to add the merge changes into your repository to make them persistent







|







 







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    changes if told to do so.</p>

<h2>Configuring Your Local Repository</h2>

    <p>When you create a new repository, either by cloning an existing
    project or create a new project of your own, you usually want to do some
    local configuration.  This is easily accomplished using the web-server
    that is built into fossil.  Start the fossil web server like this:
    ([/help/ui | more info])</p>

    <blockquote>
    <b>fossil ui </b><i> repository-filename</i>
    </blockquote>

    <p>You can omit the <i>repository-filename</i> from the command above
................................................................................
    <i># make sure the merge didn't break anything...</i><br>
    <b>fossil [/help/commit|commit]
    </blockquote>

    <p>The argument to the [/help/merge|merge] command can be any of the
    version identifier forms that work for [/help/update|update].
    ([./checkin_names.wiki|more info].)
    The merge command has options to cherry-pick individual
    changes, or to back out individual changes, if you don't want to
    do a full merge.</p>

    The merge command puts all changes in your working check-out.
    No changes are made to the repository.
    You must run [/help/commit|commit] separately
    to add the merge changes into your repository to make them persistent

Changes to www/server.wiki.

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  must be readable/executable, and ALL directories leading up to it
  must be readable by the process which executes the CGI.</li>
  <li>ALL directories leading to the CGI script must also be readable and the CGI
  script itself must be executable for the user under which it will run (which often differs
  from the one running the web server - consult your site's documentation or administrator).</li>
  <li>The repository file AND the directory containing it must be writable by the same account
  which executes the Fossil binary (again, this might differ from the WWW user). The directory
  needs to be writable so that sqlite can write its journal files.</li>
  <li>Fossil must be able to create temporary files, the default directory
  for which depends on the OS.  When the CGI process is operating within
  a chroot, ensure that this directory exists and is readable/writeable
  by the user who executes the Fossil binary.</li>
</ul>

Once the script is set up correctly, and assuming your server is also set
................................................................................
<h2 id="scgi">Fossil as SCGI</h2>
<blockquote>

The [/help/server|fossil server] command, described above as a way of
starting a stand-alone web server, can also be used for SCGI.  Simply add
the --scgi command-line option and the stand-alone server will interpret
and respond to the SimpleCGI or SCGI protocol rather than raw HTTP.  This can
be used in combination with a webserver (such as [http://nginx.org|Nginx])
that does not support CGI.  A typical Nginx configuration to support SCGI
with Fossil would look something like this:

<blockquote><pre>
location /demo_project/ {
    include scgi_params;
    scgi_pass localhost:9000;
................................................................................
are recommended for high-traffic sites.

The webpage cache is activated using the [/help?cmd=cache|fossil cache init]
command-line on the server.  Add a -R option to specify the specific repository
for which to enable caching.  If running this command as root, be sure to
"chown" the cache database (which is a separate file in the same directory
and with the same name as the repository but with the suffix changed to ".cache")
to give it write permission for the userid of the webserver.

To activate the server load control feature
visit the Admin → Access setup page in the administrative web
interface; in the "<b>Server Load Average Limit</b>" box
enter the load average threshold above which "503 Server
Overload" replies will be issued for expensive requests.  On the
self-hosting Fossil server, that value is set to 1.5, but you could easily
................................................................................
The second form is especially useful for changing the maximum load average
simultaneously on a large number of repositories.

Note that this load-average limiting feature is only available on operating
systems that support the "getloadavg()" API.  Most modern Unix systems have
this interface, but Windows does not, so the feature will not work on Windows.
Note also that Linux implements "getloadavg()" by accessing the "/proc/loadavg"
file in the "proc" virtual filesystem.  If you are running a Fossil instance
inside a chroot() jail on Linux, you will need to make the "/proc" file
system available inside that jail in order for this feature to work.  On
the [./selfhost.wiki|self-hosting Fossil repositories], this was accomplished
by adding a line to the "/etc/fstab" file that looks like:

<blockquote><pre>
chroot_jail_proc /home/www/proc proc ro 0 0







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  must be readable/executable, and ALL directories leading up to it
  must be readable by the process which executes the CGI.</li>
  <li>ALL directories leading to the CGI script must also be readable and the CGI
  script itself must be executable for the user under which it will run (which often differs
  from the one running the web server - consult your site's documentation or administrator).</li>
  <li>The repository file AND the directory containing it must be writable by the same account
  which executes the Fossil binary (again, this might differ from the WWW user). The directory
  needs to be writable so that SQLite can write its journal files.</li>
  <li>Fossil must be able to create temporary files, the default directory
  for which depends on the OS.  When the CGI process is operating within
  a chroot, ensure that this directory exists and is readable/writeable
  by the user who executes the Fossil binary.</li>
</ul>

Once the script is set up correctly, and assuming your server is also set
................................................................................
<h2 id="scgi">Fossil as SCGI</h2>
<blockquote>

The [/help/server|fossil server] command, described above as a way of
starting a stand-alone web server, can also be used for SCGI.  Simply add
the --scgi command-line option and the stand-alone server will interpret
and respond to the SimpleCGI or SCGI protocol rather than raw HTTP.  This can
be used in combination with a web server (such as [http://nginx.org|Nginx])
that does not support CGI.  A typical Nginx configuration to support SCGI
with Fossil would look something like this:

<blockquote><pre>
location /demo_project/ {
    include scgi_params;
    scgi_pass localhost:9000;
................................................................................
are recommended for high-traffic sites.

The webpage cache is activated using the [/help?cmd=cache|fossil cache init]
command-line on the server.  Add a -R option to specify the specific repository
for which to enable caching.  If running this command as root, be sure to
"chown" the cache database (which is a separate file in the same directory
and with the same name as the repository but with the suffix changed to ".cache")
to give it write permission for the userid of the web server.

To activate the server load control feature
visit the Admin → Access setup page in the administrative web
interface; in the "<b>Server Load Average Limit</b>" box
enter the load average threshold above which "503 Server
Overload" replies will be issued for expensive requests.  On the
self-hosting Fossil server, that value is set to 1.5, but you could easily
................................................................................
The second form is especially useful for changing the maximum load average
simultaneously on a large number of repositories.

Note that this load-average limiting feature is only available on operating
systems that support the "getloadavg()" API.  Most modern Unix systems have
this interface, but Windows does not, so the feature will not work on Windows.
Note also that Linux implements "getloadavg()" by accessing the "/proc/loadavg"
file in the "proc" virtual file system.  If you are running a Fossil instance
inside a chroot() jail on Linux, you will need to make the "/proc" file
system available inside that jail in order for this feature to work.  On
the [./selfhost.wiki|self-hosting Fossil repositories], this was accomplished
by adding a line to the "/etc/fstab" file that looks like:

<blockquote><pre>
chroot_jail_proc /home/www/proc proc ro 0 0

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[https://wapp.tcl.tk|Wapp program].  The current source code to the
this program can be seen at
[https://www.sqlite.org/src/ext/checklist/self] and
recent historical versions are available at
[https://sqlite.org/docsrc/finfo/misc/checklist.tcl] with
older legacy at [https://sqlite.org/checklistapp/timeline?n=all]

There is a cascade of CGIs happening here.  The webserver that receives
the initial HTTP request runs Fossil as a CGI based on the
"https://sqlite.org/src" portion of the URL.  The Fossil instance then
runs the checklist sub-CGI based on the "/ext/checklists" suffix.  The
output of the sub-CGI is read by Fossil and then relayed on to the
main webserver which in turn relays the result back to the original client.

<h3>2.2 Example #2</h3>

The [https://fossil-scm.org/home|Fossil self-hosting repository] is also
a CGI that looks like this:

<blockquote><verbatim>
................................................................................
If the HTTP request includes content (for example if this is a POST request)
then the CONTENT_LENGTH value will be positive and the data for the content
will be readable on standard input.

<h2>4.0 CGI Outputs</h2>

CGI programs construct a reply by writing to standard output.  The first
few lines of output are parameters intended for the webserver that invoked
the CGI.  These are followed by a blank line and then the content.

Typical parameter output looks like this:

<blockquote><verbatim>
Status: 200 Ok
Content-Type: text/html







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[https://wapp.tcl.tk|Wapp program].  The current source code to the
this program can be seen at
[https://www.sqlite.org/src/ext/checklist/self] and
recent historical versions are available at
[https://sqlite.org/docsrc/finfo/misc/checklist.tcl] with
older legacy at [https://sqlite.org/checklistapp/timeline?n=all]

There is a cascade of CGIs happening here.  The web server that receives
the initial HTTP request runs Fossil as a CGI based on the
"https://sqlite.org/src" portion of the URL.  The Fossil instance then
runs the checklist sub-CGI based on the "/ext/checklists" suffix.  The
output of the sub-CGI is read by Fossil and then relayed on to the
main web server which in turn relays the result back to the original client.

<h3>2.2 Example #2</h3>

The [https://fossil-scm.org/home|Fossil self-hosting repository] is also
a CGI that looks like this:

<blockquote><verbatim>
................................................................................
If the HTTP request includes content (for example if this is a POST request)
then the CONTENT_LENGTH value will be positive and the data for the content
will be readable on standard input.

<h2>4.0 CGI Outputs</h2>

CGI programs construct a reply by writing to standard output.  The first
few lines of output are parameters intended for the web server that invoked
the CGI.  These are followed by a blank line and then the content.

Typical parameter output looks like this:

<blockquote><verbatim>
Status: 200 Ok
Content-Type: text/html

Changes to www/stats.wiki.

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"GB" means gigabytes (10<sup><small>9</small></sup> bytes)
not <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibibyte">gibibytes</a>
(2<sup><small>30</small></sup> bytes).  Similarly, "MB" and "KB"
means megabytes and kilobytes, not mebibytes and kibibytes.

<h2>Analysis And Supplemental Data</h2>

Perhaps the two most interesting datapoints in the above table are SQLite
and SLT.  SQLite is a long-running project with long revision chains.
Some of the files in SQLite have been edited over a thousand times.
Each of these edits is stored as a delta, and hence the SQLite project
gets excellent 80:1 compression.  SLT, on the other hand, consists of
many large (megabyte-sized) SQL scripts that have one or maybe two
edits each.  There is very little delta compression occurring and so the
overall repository compression ratio is much lower.  Note also that







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"GB" means gigabytes (10<sup><small>9</small></sup> bytes)
not <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibibyte">gibibytes</a>
(2<sup><small>30</small></sup> bytes).  Similarly, "MB" and "KB"
means megabytes and kilobytes, not mebibytes and kibibytes.

<h2>Analysis And Supplemental Data</h2>

Perhaps the two most interesting data points in the above table are SQLite
and SLT.  SQLite is a long-running project with long revision chains.
Some of the files in SQLite have been edited over a thousand times.
Each of these edits is stored as a delta, and hence the SQLite project
gets excellent 80:1 compression.  SLT, on the other hand, consists of
many large (megabyte-sized) SQL scripts that have one or maybe two
edits each.  There is very little delta compression occurring and so the
overall repository compression ratio is much lower.  Note also that

Changes to www/tech_overview.wiki.

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Note that the zlib and delta compression is not an inherent part of the
Fossil file format; it is just an optimization.
The enduring file format for Fossil is the unordered
set of artifacts. The compression techniques are just a detail of
how the current implementation of Fossil happens to store these artifacts
efficiently on disk.

All of the original uncompressed and undeltaed artifacts can be extracted
from a Fossil repository database using
the [/help/deconstruct | fossil deconstruct]
command. Individual artifacts can be extracted using the
[/help/artifact | fossil artifact] command.
When accessing the repository database using raw SQL and the
[/help/sqlite3 | fossil sql] command, the extension function
"<tt>content()</tt>" with a single argument which is the SHA1 or
................................................................................
  *  State information for the [/help/bisect | bisect] command.

For Fossil commands that run from within a working checkout, the
first thing that happens is that Fossil locates the checkout database.
Fossil first looks in the current directory.  If not found there, it
looks in the parent directory.  If not found there, the parent of the
parent.  And so forth until either the checkout database is found
or the search reaches the root of the filesystem.  (In the latter case,
Fossil returns an error, of course.)  Once the checkout database is
located, it is used to locate the repository database.

Notice that the checkout database contains a pointer to the repository
database but that the repository database has no record of the checkout
databases.  That means that a working checkout directory tree can be
freely renamed or copied or deleted without consequence.  But the







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Note that the zlib and delta compression is not an inherent part of the
Fossil file format; it is just an optimization.
The enduring file format for Fossil is the unordered
set of artifacts. The compression techniques are just a detail of
how the current implementation of Fossil happens to store these artifacts
efficiently on disk.

All of the original uncompressed and un-delta'd artifacts can be extracted
from a Fossil repository database using
the [/help/deconstruct | fossil deconstruct]
command. Individual artifacts can be extracted using the
[/help/artifact | fossil artifact] command.
When accessing the repository database using raw SQL and the
[/help/sqlite3 | fossil sql] command, the extension function
"<tt>content()</tt>" with a single argument which is the SHA1 or
................................................................................
  *  State information for the [/help/bisect | bisect] command.

For Fossil commands that run from within a working checkout, the
first thing that happens is that Fossil locates the checkout database.
Fossil first looks in the current directory.  If not found there, it
looks in the parent directory.  If not found there, the parent of the
parent.  And so forth until either the checkout database is found
or the search reaches the root of the file system.  (In the latter case,
Fossil returns an error, of course.)  Once the checkout database is
located, it is used to locate the repository database.

Notice that the checkout database contains a pointer to the repository
database but that the repository database has no record of the checkout
databases.  That means that a working checkout directory tree can be
freely renamed or copied or deleted without consequence.  But the

Changes to www/tickets.wiki.

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to a ticket.  The act of creating a ticket is considered a
change.

Each ticket change artifact contains the following information:

<ul>
<li>The ID of the ticket that was changed
<li>The timestamp for when the change occurred
<li>The user who made the change
<li>A list of key/value pairs that show what changed in the ticket
</ul>

To determine the current state of a particular ticket, Fossil orders
the change artifacts for that ticket from oldest to most recent,
then applies each change in timestamp order.

On each change artifact, there are one or more key/value pairs that
implement the change.  The key corresponds to a field of the ticket
that is modified.  The value may either replace the earlier value for
that key, or the value may be appended to the prior value.

<h2>2.0 Ticket Tables</h2>

The low-level artifact format for ticket content is tedious and
cumbersome to access in realtime.  To facility reporting and display
of tickets, the low-level artifact information is collected and
summarized in a pair of SQL tables in each local repository.  Display
and reporting of tickets is accomplished by querying these two tables.

Note that only the low-level ticket change artifacts are synced.  The
content of the two ticket tables can always be reconstructed from the
ticket change artifacts.  And, indeed, the reconstruction of the ticket
................................................................................

<h3>2.2 Translating Artifacts To Tables</h3>

Each row in the TICKETCHNG table corresponds to a single ticket change
artifact.  The tkt_id field is the integer primary key of the TICKET
table entry for the corresponding ticket.  The tkt_rid field is the
integer primary key for the BLOB table entry that contains the low-level
artifact text.  The tkt_mtime field is the timestamp on the ticket
change artifact, expressed as a julian day number.  If the ticket
change artifact contains a key/value pair where the key is "login",
then the corresponding value is stored in the login field of the
TICKETCHNG table.  The same it true for "username", "mimetype", and
"icomment" fields.  Any time there is a key/value pair in the ticket
change artifact and the key corresponds to the name of a field in the
TICKETCHNG table, then the value of that key/value pair is stored in
the TICKETCHNG table.  If the TICKETCHNG table has a field for which there
................................................................................
The tkt_id field is a unique integer primary key for the ticket.
the tkt_uuid field is the global ticket identifier - a larger random
hexadecimal constant.  The tkt_mtime and tkt_ctime fields hold the
times of the most recent and the oldest ticket change artifacts for
this ticket, respectively.

To reconstruct the TICKET table, the ticket change
artifacts are visited in timestamp order.  As each ticket change artifact is
visited, its key/value pairs are examined.  For any key/value pair in
which the key is the same as a field in the TICKET table, the value
of that pair either replaces or is appended to the previous value
of the corresponding field in the TICKET table.  Whether a value is
replaced or appended is determined by markings in the ticket change
artifact itself.  Most fields are usually replaced. (For example, to change
the status from "Open" to "Fixed" would involve a key value pair
................................................................................
support the "new-style" tickets.

The TICKETCHNG table was added to support new-style tickets.  In the new
style, comment text is stored with the "icomment" (for "Incremental Comment")
key and appears separately, and with its on mimetype, in multiple rows
of the TICKETCHNG table.  It then falls to the TH1 script code on the
View Ticket Page to query the TICKETCHNG table and extract and format
the various comments in timestamp order.







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to a ticket.  The act of creating a ticket is considered a
change.

Each ticket change artifact contains the following information:

<ul>
<li>The ID of the ticket that was changed
<li>The time stamp for when the change occurred
<li>The user who made the change
<li>A list of key/value pairs that show what changed in the ticket
</ul>

To determine the current state of a particular ticket, Fossil orders
the change artifacts for that ticket from oldest to most recent,
then applies each change in time stamp order.

On each change artifact, there are one or more key/value pairs that
implement the change.  The key corresponds to a field of the ticket
that is modified.  The value may either replace the earlier value for
that key, or the value may be appended to the prior value.

<h2>2.0 Ticket Tables</h2>

The low-level artifact format for ticket content is tedious and
cumbersome to access in real time.  To facility reporting and display
of tickets, the low-level artifact information is collected and
summarized in a pair of SQL tables in each local repository.  Display
and reporting of tickets is accomplished by querying these two tables.

Note that only the low-level ticket change artifacts are synced.  The
content of the two ticket tables can always be reconstructed from the
ticket change artifacts.  And, indeed, the reconstruction of the ticket
................................................................................

<h3>2.2 Translating Artifacts To Tables</h3>

Each row in the TICKETCHNG table corresponds to a single ticket change
artifact.  The tkt_id field is the integer primary key of the TICKET
table entry for the corresponding ticket.  The tkt_rid field is the
integer primary key for the BLOB table entry that contains the low-level
artifact text.  The tkt_mtime field is the time stamp on the ticket
change artifact, expressed as a Julian day number.  If the ticket
change artifact contains a key/value pair where the key is "login",
then the corresponding value is stored in the login field of the
TICKETCHNG table.  The same it true for "username", "mimetype", and
"icomment" fields.  Any time there is a key/value pair in the ticket
change artifact and the key corresponds to the name of a field in the
TICKETCHNG table, then the value of that key/value pair is stored in
the TICKETCHNG table.  If the TICKETCHNG table has a field for which there
................................................................................
The tkt_id field is a unique integer primary key for the ticket.
the tkt_uuid field is the global ticket identifier - a larger random
hexadecimal constant.  The tkt_mtime and tkt_ctime fields hold the
times of the most recent and the oldest ticket change artifacts for
this ticket, respectively.

To reconstruct the TICKET table, the ticket change
artifacts are visited in time stamp order.  As each ticket change artifact is
visited, its key/value pairs are examined.  For any key/value pair in
which the key is the same as a field in the TICKET table, the value
of that pair either replaces or is appended to the previous value
of the corresponding field in the TICKET table.  Whether a value is
replaced or appended is determined by markings in the ticket change
artifact itself.  Most fields are usually replaced. (For example, to change
the status from "Open" to "Fixed" would involve a key value pair
................................................................................
support the "new-style" tickets.

The TICKETCHNG table was added to support new-style tickets.  In the new
style, comment text is stored with the "icomment" (for "Incremental Comment")
key and appears separately, and with its on mimetype, in multiple rows
of the TICKETCHNG table.  It then falls to the TH1 script code on the
View Ticket Page to query the TICKETCHNG table and extract and format
the various comments in time stamp order.

Changes to www/webui.wiki.

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To start using the built-in Fossil web interface on an existing Fossil
repository, simply type this:

   <b>fossil ui existing-repository.fossil</b>

Substitute the name of your repository, of course.
The "ui" command will start a webserver running (it figures out an
available TCP port to use on its own) and then automatically launches
your web browser to point at that server.  If you run the "ui" command
from within an open check-out, you can omit the repository name:

  <b>fossil ui</b>

The latter case is a very useful short-cut when you are working on a
................................................................................
your edits will automatically merge with those of your co-workers when
your repository synchronizes.

You can view summary reports of <b>branches</b> in the
check-in graph by visiting the "Branches" link on the
menu bar.  From those pages you can follow hyperlinks to get additional
details.  These screens allow you to easily keep track of what is going
on with separate subteams within your project team.

The "Files" link on the menu allows you to browse through the <b>file
hierarchy</b> of the project and to view complete changes histories on
individual files, with hyperlinks to the check-ins that made those
changes, and with diffs and annotated diffs between versions.

The web interface supports [./embeddeddoc.wiki | embedded documentation].







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To start using the built-in Fossil web interface on an existing Fossil
repository, simply type this:

   <b>fossil ui existing-repository.fossil</b>

Substitute the name of your repository, of course.
The "ui" command will start a web server running (it figures out an
available TCP port to use on its own) and then automatically launches
your web browser to point at that server.  If you run the "ui" command
from within an open check-out, you can omit the repository name:

  <b>fossil ui</b>

The latter case is a very useful short-cut when you are working on a
................................................................................
your edits will automatically merge with those of your co-workers when
your repository synchronizes.

You can view summary reports of <b>branches</b> in the
check-in graph by visiting the "Branches" link on the
menu bar.  From those pages you can follow hyperlinks to get additional
details.  These screens allow you to easily keep track of what is going
on with separate sub-teams within your project team.

The "Files" link on the menu allows you to browse through the <b>file
hierarchy</b> of the project and to view complete changes histories on
individual files, with hyperlinks to the check-ins that made those
changes, and with diffs and annotated diffs between versions.

The web interface supports [./embeddeddoc.wiki | embedded documentation].

Changes to www/wikitheory.wiki.

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<h2>Stand-alone Wiki Pages</h2>

Each wiki page has its own revision history which is independent of
the sequence of check-ins (check-ins).  Wiki pages can branch and merge
just like check-ins, though as of this writing (2008-07-29) there is
no mechanism in the user interface to support branching and merging.
The current implementation of the wiki shows the version of the wiki
page that has the most recent timestamp.

In other words, if two users make unrelated changes to the same wiki
page on separate repositories and those repositories are synced,
the wiki page will fork.  The web interface will display whichever edit
was checked in last.  The other edit can be found in the history.  The
file format will support merging the branches back together, but there
is no mechanism in the user interface (yet) to perform the merge.







|







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<h2>Stand-alone Wiki Pages</h2>

Each wiki page has its own revision history which is independent of
the sequence of check-ins (check-ins).  Wiki pages can branch and merge
just like check-ins, though as of this writing (2008-07-29) there is
no mechanism in the user interface to support branching and merging.
The current implementation of the wiki shows the version of the wiki
page that has the most recent time stamp.

In other words, if two users make unrelated changes to the same wiki
page on separate repositories and those repositories are synced,
the wiki page will fork.  The web interface will display whichever edit
was checked in last.  The other edit can be found in the history.  The
file format will support merging the branches back together, but there
is no mechanism in the user interface (yet) to perform the merge.